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http://grape.org.pl/sites/default/files/user/AKG_Academic_CV_0.pdf

http://grape.org.pl/sites/default/files/user/AKG_Academic_CV_en.pdf

Opublikowane | Published

  • Digital piracy and the perception of price fairness. Evidence from a field experiment | Journal of Cultural Economics

    We study a relationship between perceived price fairness and digital piracy. In a large-scale field experiment on customers of a leading ebook store we employ the Bayesian Truth Serum to elicit the information on acquiring books from unauthorized sources (often referred to as digital piracy). We provide empirical evidence in support of the conjecture that willingness to ‘pirate’ is associated with having experienced subjective overpricing. We propose and verify the relevance of two mechanisms behind this link: reactance theory and moral cleansing/licensing. The results indicate that pricing policy perceived as fair may reduce the scope for digital piracy.

    Joanna
    Tyrowicz
    Michał
    Krawczyk
    Anna
    Kukla-Gryz
  • The effects of individual internal versus external reference prices on consumer decisions for pay-what-you-want payments | Central European Economic Journal

    We empirically investigate the interaction between internal and external reference prices on stated payments in a Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) scheme. Using results of a vignette experiment with e-books, we show that when an external reference price provided is lower than respondents’ internal reference prices, the average of PWYW payments significantly decreases compared with a situation in which the external reference price is not provided. The relationship is the opposite when the external reference price provided to respondents is higher than their internal reference prices. In such a case, upward pressure is created, thus the average of PWYW payments increases. These results remain true when we control for expected quality of e-books. Additionally, we find that when the external reference price is not provided, the size of PWYW payments depends positively on individual factors such as risk-taking propensity and perceived costs of e-book production.


    The data summarizes results of a vignette experiment conducted in cooperation with Virtualo e-book store on the sample of their newsletter subscribed clients. In the file, you will find the Excel file with the data and full list of variables with descriptions. All questions from the original survey (conduced in Polish) were translated into English. Note that the dataset might not be exclusively owned by the authors. Use of data requires a license from the data owner. If you wish to use them for your own work, please contact authors for permissions: Anna Kukla, Katarzyna Zagórska.

     

    Anna
    Kukla-Gryz
    Katarzyna
    Zagórska
  • ‘If I can set my own price for tonight’s show I will pay more after watching it!’ – evidence from Pay What You Want experiment | Applied Economics Letters

    In a field experiment conducted in cooperation with city theatres in Warsaw, we allowed some of the visitors to pay whatever they wanted for the tickets. Half of these visitors were asked randomly to make a voluntary payment after (instead of before) the performance. We found a significant positive difference between payments made after and before the show. In a specially designed survey we capture factors that may potentially explain this difference: the visitors’ general expectations towards the performance and different aspects of the audience experience.


    The data summarizes results of field experiments conducted in three theaters in Warsaw. In the file, you will find the Excel file with the data and full list of variables with descriptions. All questions from the original survey (conduced in Polish) were translated into English. Note that the dataset might not be exclusively owned by the authors. Use of data requires a license from the data owner. If you wish to use them for your own work, please contact authors for permissions: Anna Kukla & Katarzyna Zagórska.

    Anna
    Kukla-Gryz
    Katarzyna
    Zagórska
  • Do pirates play fair? Ethical judgment of unauthorized sports broadcasts | Behaviour & Information Technology

    Ethical norms on the Internet are believed to be more permissive than in the ‘real’ world and this belief often serves as an explanation for the prevalence of the so-called digital “piracy”. In this study we provide evidence from a vignette experiment that contradicts this claim. Analyzing the case of sports broadcast, we compare explicitly the ethical judgment of legal and illegal sharing in the offline and online context. We find that the norms concerning legality, availability of alternatives and deriving material benefits from sharing content do not differ substantially between the virtual and real worlds. We also test explicitly for the role of legal awareness and find that emphasizing what is prohibited (copyright infringement) is less effective than focusing on what is permitted (fair use) in reducing the disparity between legal and ethical norms.

    Wojciech
    Hardy
    Michał
    Krawczyk
    Anna
    Kukla-Gryz
    Joanna
    Tyrowicz
  • We all do it, but are we willing to admit? Incentivizing digital pirates’ confessions | Applied Economics Letters

    In this study, we try to assess the prevalence of illicit downloading in the market of audio books and the willingness to admit to such practices. We compare the Bayesian Truth Serum (Prelec, 2004) treatment in which truthful responses and precise estimates are rewarded to the control treatment with a flat participation fee. We find a sizable treatment effect – incentivized ‘pirates’ admit approximately 60% more often than the nonincentivized ones.

    Joanna
    Tyrowicz
    Michał
    Krawczyk
    Anna
    Kukla-Gryz
  • „Piracy is not theft!” Is it just students who think so? | Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics

    A fair share of studies analyzing “online piracy” are based on easily accessible student samples. However, it has been argued that the youths tend to have more lax social and ethical norms concerning both property rights and online behavior. In this study we present the results of a vignette experiment, i.e. a scenario survey where responders are asked to provide an ethical judgment on different forms of unauthorized acquisition of a full season of a popular TV series described in a number of hypothetical stories. The survey is conducted both on a student sample and on a sample of individuals who openly endorse protection of intellectual property rights for cultural goods. In this way we can investigate the possibly limited external validity of studies relying solely on the student samples. The vignette experiment concerned ethical evaluation of unauthorized acquisition of cultural content in both virtual and real context and was focused on six dimensions previously identified as relevant to the ethical judgment. Surprisingly, we found that the rules for the ethical judgment do not differ between our samples, suggesting that the social norms on “online piracy” follow similar patterns in student and in other populations. Findings from studies relying on ethical or moral judgments of students may thus be valid in a much broader population.

    Wojciech
    Hardy
    Michał
    Krawczyk
    Anna
    Kukla-Gryz
    Joanna
    Tyrowicz

W toku | Work in progress

  • Do cultural differences affect voluntary payment decisions? Evidence from guided tours

     We provide an empirical explanation for cross-country differences in the size of the voluntary payments made for a good offered in a Pay-What-You-Want payment scheme. Using a sample of almost 500 international travellers from 50 nations participating in a guided tour that uses a voluntary payment method, we analyse the relationship between the size of the average voluntary payments and national values defined by Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (1983) as well as selected values from the World Value Survey (WVS). Strong correlations between certain cultural values and average payment sizes are found.  

    Anna
    Kukla-Gryz
    Peter
    Szewczyk
    Katarzyna
    Zagórska
  • Pushed by the crowd or pulled by the leaders? Peer effects in Pay-What-You-Want

    Literature on charitable giving often finds that seed money matters: the example of a wealthy donor is followed by others (List and Lucking-Riley, 2002). Nearly all relevant theoretical accounts (e.g. that leaders possess superior information on quality of the project) seem to apply to the closely related environment of Pay-What-You-Want mechanisms as well. Yet, as far as we can tell, no empirical study has tested for that until now. To fill this gap, we analyze data from 16 campaigns of BookRage (an equivalent of Humble Bundle, offering bundles of e-books). We make use of the fact that a fixed number of currently highest contributions are always displayed (along with mean contribution and total amount raised). Thus a discontinuity may be expected: contributions that are displayed might directly affect subsequent donors’ behavior, in contrast to just slightly lower donations that are only observable as a (small) change in mean contribution. We find that the example of leaders makes no impact on willingness to purchase and amount paid. By contrast, the mean of past contributions has a positive impact on current contribution, yet a negative impact on the probability of contributing.

    Michał
    Krawczyk
    Anna
    Kukla-Gryz
    Joanna
    Tyrowicz